River Styx?

Is there, or was there, a real River Styx? Anybody know?

[I was just reading an article claiming that Alexander the Great was killed by a bacteria he caught from the Styx.]

great-adventures.com/destina … reece.html

greekmountainflora.info/Chel … rfall.html

Thanks. It was so interesting learning that a stream flowing from the Mavroneri Waterfall used to be known as the Styx. It appears to be very toxic.

However, I’ve also been reading that one should take this theory for the death of Alexander with a bit of skepticism. There’s a very strong possibility that he was assassinated, in that his friend Hephaestion had already died not long before of the same symptoms. It could have been a plot instigated by Ptolemy, who managed to take control of Egypt after some battles; it would not have been difficult to get men from the imperial ranks to assassinate him. In fact, they could have done for their own personal reasons.

Here’s a list about Alexander that somebody put together, showing that he was flawed and difficult as a leader.

  1. He killed some of his most trusted lieutenants due to plots, including Clitus, a soldier who had saved his life, in a drunken rage.

  2. He marched much further than he needed to to establish a fantastic empire.

  3. He was only stopped by a large scale revolt by his sub-commanders and troops.

  4. He probably killed his own father to get started on the upward path. The assassin was killed by two of AtG’s sworn men, during pursuit before he could be interrogated.

  5. He had adopted Persian dress and customs, including some that came close to deifying himself, and this went over very poorly with his Greek soldiers.

  6. When his purported homosexual lover, Hephaestion , died (possibly of poison) AtG attacked a nearby town and slew everyone inside, including the kids, as a sacrifice to his friend.

  7. After the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit the classic signs of megalomania and paranoia. It’s never fun to work under someone with those problems, especially if a single word of his controls life or death.

  1. It was in this time several plots to kill him came to light. Everyone implicated was killed by AtG’s command, including some of his generals.
  1. Having completely failed to plan any succession, every one of his generals would realize they had a shot at independent power should he die.

  2. He was already starting to discuss other possible campaigns around the Red Sea, and this went over poorly with an army that felt they had already more than earned their just rewards (land, women, money).

  3. He was being treated with helebore, a known poison. It is of interest an overdose, either accidental or deliberate, could lead to a slow and painful death. AtG died a slow and painful death.

Basically, the argument isn’t who might want him dead as much as who around him wouldn’t. Thus, almost none of his followers would be tempted to warn him if whispers of a plot did circulate.

It appears, then, that the odds of him dying naturally at 33, even though he was a functioning alcoholic by then, are not as good as a manipulated death.

The 11th thing you cite is probably the most likely cause of his death, as you allude to. Apparently, it is a constipation remedy, and would be easily be used for assasination.

I agree. Here’s wiki on hellebore. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellebore

The same person says:

Now, these symptoms fit quite closely with what was recorded. It is of particular interest Alexander evidenced symptoms of several types of clinical insanity, and we KNOW his physician was treating him with hellebore. By stepping up the dosage slightly death could be arranged, albeit taking several weeks to occur.

We will never know the final answer, of course.

It’s also possible Jimmy Hoffa has an attack of Alzheimers, wandered off and died in the woods somewhere. With the ones who wanted him gone, its not likely though…

It’s pretty hard to find images of it, but I managed to find a video made by some traveler. I was a bit surprised in my search-I expected the place to be more popular. :confused: