The Problem vs the Person (ad hominem)

It’s so hard to decide between psychology and society, and between ethics and politics. So I put this in Philosophy regarding ad hominem.

If we diagnose the problem rather than the person to avoid ad hominem, how much of the way we do things would we have to rethink?

Is considering someone an Alpha or Type A personality ad hominem? Is personality typing like “I am an INFJ” ad hominem? Are population statistics which determine where funds are sent ad hominem?

Shouldn’t we be correcting the errors/incongruencies in thinking, values, and behaviors, rather than conducting ad hominems?

Is thinking attuned to the character of viciousness & virtuosity ad hominem? Is it only ad hominem if we do not allow for malleability in either direction (for anyone excepting the Perfect)?